With increasing fuel prices and pollution, the need to shift to a cleaner mode of transport has become increasingly important. Car manufactures have thus invested heavily on capital and research on the electric vehicle sector. With so much focus on electric vehicles, it is normal that one would ask themselves so many questions including; on what principle do electric vehicles operate? What type of motors are used? Are there diverse types of electric vehicles? Should I go for electric vehicles? Online reviews can prove beneficial as far as helping you answer some of these questions is concerned. You can see more car services reviews and find out people’s feedback on companies offering electric vehicles. Those looking for car parts might find car parts 4 less UK helpful. This article looks at electric vehicles, how they operate, different types of electric vehicles and other vital aspects to help one choose an electric vehicle that they will find beneficial to them.
The working principle of electric vehicles
Electric vehicles rely on the conversion of energy; a basic principle of science to operate. They convert electric energy to mechanical energy, by use of a motor. The motor used can be of different types including;
Electric motors types used in electric vehicles
Dc series motor
This motor dates back to the 1990s and is one of the commonly utilised motors. It can produce a high initial torque as it is capable of bearing a sudden increase in load. It is also easy to control the motors speed. However, because it has commutators and brushes in its construction, it has a high maintenance cost; its major shortcoming.
Brushless DC motor
This can be said to be an advanced type of the DC series motor. Instead of commutators and brushes, it has permanent magnets. The motor offers the advantage of high efficiency, a high starting torque and require low maintenance. Today Brushless DC motors are broadly applied as belt-driven or hub motors.
The permanent magnet synchronous motors
It is identical in construction to the brushless Dc motor. The main variance is the back emf. The permanent magnet synchronous motors offer a sinusoidal back emf; however, the brushless Dc motor offers a trapezoidal back emf. This type of motor has high power ratings and is suitable for high-performance applications, including buses and sports cars.
The three-phase induction motor
This is the cheapest motor of all these other types. Its major shortcoming is the fact that is has a low starting torque. It has, however the ability to withstand harsh environmental condition and also offer excellent efficiency.
Electric vehicle Types
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV)
These are electric vehicle types powered by both electricity and fuel. The vehicles braking system is used to generate electricity. The heat that brake produce is transformed into electrical energy in a process referred to as Regenerative breaking. The HEVs are started using an electric motor and then the internal combustion engine takes over the propulsion. This helps save on fuel.
Battery electric vehicle (BEV)
These are vehicles driven only by batteries and motors and offer the advantage of being emission-free. An AC charger or a DC fast charger is used to charge the vehicle’s battery. While using an Ac charger, this type of vehicle takes about 8 hours to get fully charged. With a DC fast charge however within an hour, the car will be fully charged. Depending on the vehicle’s motor and battery capacity, the vehicles can cover a distance of 250 to 500 kilometres before needing to be recharged.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
These electric vehicle types are capable of recharging their batteries via an external power source or regenerative braking. While HEV can cover about four kilometres before switching to the engine, PHEV can cover up to 65 kilometres before switching to the engine.
Factors to consider before buying electric vehicles.
Technologies used in electric vehicles are becoming highly efficient, and today it is straightforward to find a car that can travel 200 miles. The number of available charging stations have also increased. But even so, the range that an electric vehicle can cover without needing more charge varies on various factors, including speeds, so be careful on your driving patterns before purchasing an electric car.
Never compromise features just for the sake of having a sustainable vehicle. Consider the uses that you’ll be using the vehicle, is it for personal uses, for family use or will be for sports. Ensure that you go for an electric vehicle that will suit your applications.
Extreme temperatures tend to cause wear on the battery and affect how quickly the vehicles use the energy and the overall amount of energy the car battery stores. Go for electric vehicles whose battery is in a new condition or if slightly used hasn’t been used in extremely cold or hot temperatures.
In conclusion, this article offers essential insights on electric vehicles, helping one understand them better and thus have an easy time choosing the electric vehicle to best suit them.